Fluid Volume Disturbances

Fluid volume disturbances
Fluid volume disturbances

Normal daily fluid requirements for an adult range from 1500-3000ml.

Water and electrolytes are lost from the body through:

1. insensible fluid loss from skin, and the lung.

2. kidney.

3. bowel.

Total fluid output ranges from 1850 ml to 3600 ml.

Body fluids carry nutrient and O2 to the cells and remove waste products from them.

Fluid volume deficit (FVD) / hypovolemia.

It might result from:

1. Decreased intake of water and electrolytes.

2. Loss of water and electrolytes.

3. Bowel obstruction.

4. Severe burns and crush injuries.

signs and symptoms:

1. Dry mucous membranes.

2. Slow filling of hand veins.

3. Decreased urinary output.

4. Concentrated urine ( dark yellow).

5. Raped weak pulse.

6. Orthostatic hypotension.

7. Decreased temperature.

8. Cold extremities.

9. Coma.


1. Oral fluids if mild

2. IV fluids if severe, such as saline and lactated ringers solution.

Fluid Volume Excess(FVE) Hypervolemia:

Might result from :

1. Renal failure.

2. Heart failure.

3. Excessive intake of salt.

4. Excessive intake of water ( oral or I V).

5. Certain drugs ( corticosteroids).

6. Certain diseases ( Cushing's syndrome).

Signs and symptoms:

1. Peripheral oedema.

2. Rapid weight gain.

3. Full pounding pulse.

4. CVP above 11 cm of water.

5. Distended neck veins.

6. Polyuria and diluted urine.

7. Slow emptying of hand veins.

8. Pulmonary oedema (in severe cases).

9. Ascites ( in severe cases).


1. Mild: limit fluid intake.

2. Moderate to severe: diuretics.

3. Treat pulmonary oedema if existing.


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