Nutrition Risk Factors In Pregnancy


Nutrition Pregnancy




Risk factors at the onset of pregnancy:


1.  Adolescence: pregnancy at this time superimposes metabolic demands for nutrients on the adolescent own growth. the pregnant adolescent need for increased protein, calories and iron will exceed that of the pregnant women over 20 years of age.

2.  Frequent pregnancies: three or more pregnancies within two years or multiparous women who have progressed from one pregnancy directly to anther depleted nutrient stress compromise maternal and fetal well being.

3.  Economic deprivation: a need for programs that help in offering food supplements.

4.  Vegetarian diets: of particular concern the strict vegetarian who eliminates all products of animal origin including meat, poultry, fish, cheese, eggs and milk.
pregnant women who practice strict nutrients e.g. protein, Vit B12 …

5.  Smoking, Drug Addiction or Alcoholism: there is always the possibility that women who use cigarettes, drugs or alcohol may not consume sufficient quantities of nutritious food beside its effects on pregnancy.

6.  Medical Problems: such as anaemia, thyroid dysfunction and chronic gastrointestinal disorders may interfere with the digestion, ingestion, absorption or utilization of nutrients. drugs may also affect nutrition.

7. Bizarre Food Patterns: pica " regular and excessive ingestion of non-food items or food with limited nutritional value. women on the nationally inadequate diet.

Risk factors in pregnancy:

1. Anaemia:

- Mostly iron deficiency anemia.

- Iron supplementation will aid greatly in maintaining the Hb at the normal level.

2. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension:

- Unknown cause.

- Characterized by increased B.P proteinuria and increased body weight.
 There is considerable controversy over the influence of nutrition ( Na, protein ) on the development of PIH.

3. Inadequate Weight Gain:

- The following are presumptive signs of maternal and fetal malnutrition.

- Failure to gain weight ( less than 0.9 kg/month during 2nd and 3rd trimester).

- Actual weight loss.

- Significant nausea and vomiting during the 1st trimester.

- Poor or delayed uterine fetal growth.

Effect :
- Low birth weight infant.

- Intrauterine growth retardation.

4. Excessive Weight Gain:

 - Maybe due to tissue fluid retention and may be associated with (PIH) so the women must be carefully assessed for this condition.

- Weight reduction in pregnancy and lactation by dietary manipulation or drug administration or both is contraindicated.

5- Demands Of Lactation:

Storage of 2-3 kg of fat during pregnancy provide a reservoir of some ( 14000-24000 kcal ) for lactation needs this is utilized for the first 4-6 months of lactation.


READ MORE:

Pulmonary Edema

Maternal Nutrition

Iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy


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