Pulmonary Edema



Pulmonary Edema
Pulmonary Edema


Definition

Chronic respiratory disorders characterized by the morphologic change in the lung tissue " distention of alveolar sac, rupture of alveolar walls, and destruction of alveolar capillary bed "
In this disorder, air is trapped in the lungs due to loss of lung elasticity.
On microscopic examination, the walls of the alveoli are broken down resulting in one large sac rather than multiple small air spaces "alveoli", the capillary bed previously located within the destroyed alveolar walls is destroyed and much of the tissue is replaced by fibrous tissue.
All of this leads to improper gas exchange during respiration.


Signs and Symptoms:

1. External dyspnea: shortness of breath with minimal action.

2. A chronic cough with mucopurulent sputum.

3. Use of muscles during respiration.

4. Wheezing.

5. If advanced: pallor, anxiety, drowsiness and confusion due to increased CO2 and decreased O2 levels in the blood.


Treatment:

1. Symptomatic treatment including O2 therapy. but not more than 2-3 litre/ min.

2. Bronchodilators.

3. Avoidance of infection.

Treatment of pulmonary edema in ER:

1- Oxygen therapy.

2- Morphine.

3- Sit up position.

4- Tourniquets.

5- Digoxin.

6- Aminophylline.

7- Diuretic.

8- Indwelling Foley catheter.

9 – Phlebotomy (rarely, when the kidneys are impaired).


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