Angina Pectoris



Angina Pectoris
Angina Pectoris


Definition:

Condition that results from myocardial ischemia. this term is used to describe the pain that accompanies myocardial ischemia. this condition is usually brief in duration and occurs during periods of extra stress, effort on the heart muscle.

Type of angina:

1- unstable angina ( preinfarction angina ): progressive increase in frequency, intensity and duration of the angina attack, increase the danger of MI within 3-8 months.

2- chronic stable angina: predictable, consistent, rarely occurs while at rest.

3- nocturnal angina: pain occurs at the night during sleep, may be relieved by setting up.

4- angina decubitus: anginal pain while lying down.

5- intractable or refractory angina: sever incapacitating angina.

6- orientals angina (variant, resting): spontaneous type of anginal pain, accompanied by ST-segment elevation in ECG, thought to be due to coronary artery spasm, associated with high risk of infarction.

Characteristics:

1- pain, which looks like the pressure is sudden.

2- substernal pain.

3- pain radiates to the left shoulder, Jew and teeth.

4- pain may resemble squeezing or tightening.

5- pain might be accompanied by :

A- dyspnea.

B- pallor.

C- sweating.

D- faintness.

6- pain usually lasts for a short period of time " minute": is usually caused by excessive efforts.

7- pain usually disappears after rest or removal of the cause.

8- the feeling of apprehension and impending death.

9- weakness and numbness in the arms, wrists and hands.

The factors that can produce anginal pain :

1 – physical exertion increases the need for oxygen to the myocardium.

2- exposure to cold or even drinking iced beverages lead to vasoconstriction and thus increase blood flow to the mesenteric artery.

3- stress and emotion release adrenaline lead to increase blood pressure and heart rate.
If pain not relieved within 20-30 minutes after nitroglycerine has been given an impending MI may be suspected.

Objective: decrease oxygen demand of myocardium, and to increase oxygen supply.



READ MORE:

Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 

Myocardial Infarction " Heart Attack " MI



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