Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Hyperemesis Gravidarum

Is exaggerated nausea and vomiting during pregnancy, persisting past the 1st trimester.

About 75% of all women experience a mild form of nausea in early pregnancy called morning sickness usually disappear by about 12th week, however vomiting persist causing serious dehydration and starvation such as a condition is called hyperemesis gravidarum which mean "excessive vomiting of pregnancy".

Causes :

1- Hormonal changes of pregnancy: increase HCG hormone level.

2- Emotional factors, insecurity and anxiety.

Clinical Manifestation:

- Begin with morning sickness and become increasingly severe.

- Frequent vomiting when mention, sight, or smell food.

- Loss of weight.

- Dehydration.

- Tachycardia.

- Thirst.

- Scanty concentrated urine.

- Jaundice caused by liver damage.

- Blindness caused by retinal haemorrhage.

- Convulsions.


Treatment should begin before damage occurs.

Maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance:

1- If vomiting is severing the women is hospitalized and oral intake is restricted for 24-28 hours, I.V fluids are administrated.

2- Oral liquid intake is resumed slowly, usually high in carbohydrate of the type preferred by the women.

3- Vitamins B complex to combat nausea.

4- Sedative and antiemetic as prescribed.

Improve Nutritional Status:

1- Offer small and frequent meals, high in carbohydrates.

2- Avoid strong food odours.

3- Avoid greasy foods.

4- Give vitamin supplementation as prescribed.

Developing Coping Abilities:

1- Have the women discuss her perception of the problem.

2- Discuss a possible resolution to the problem identified.

3- Hospitalization usually removes the women from pressure.

4- Restriction of visitors usually relieves stress.


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