Definition :

A disease characterized by a marked ( irregular ) increase in the number of WBCs in the bone marrow with the replacement of normal marrow elements.

These WBCs are immature thus they cannot combat infection.

The increased production of WBCs is accompanied by decreased production of RBCs and platelets.

Symptoms include:

Weakness, fatigue, bleeding tendencies, petechiae, ecchymosis, vomiting, fever, and infection.


Idiopathic, genetic, viral infection, boon marrow damage, radiation and chemicals.

Acute leukemia:

Two types:

1- Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) affect bone marrow, increase immature myelogenous.

2- Acute lymphatic leukemia ( ALL ) increased number of lymphocytes.

The onset of the signs and symptoms :

Onset might be sudden or may occur over a period of several months.

Signs and symptoms include:

1- The tendency for infection.

2- Anaemia.

3- Fever.

4- Lymph node enlargement.


- Chemotherapy.

- Bone marrow transplantation.

- RBCs and platelets transfusion.

Chronic Leukemia:

Two types:

1-Chronic lymphocytic leukemia ( CLL).

2- Chronic myelogenous leukemia ( CML).

Onset and signs and symptoms :

- Insidious ( gradual ) onset .

- Signs and symptoms the same as acute leukemia.

Management should take into consideration the following :

1- Watch for bleeding.

2- Monitor vital signs especially temperature .

3- Take careful care of skin.

4- Provide gentile mouth care, (be careful not to cause bleeding).

5- Protect the patient from infection by means of isolation.

6- Watch for drug toxicity.

7- Provide a blood transfusion.


Abruptio Placentae

Bacterial Meningitis

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