Chickenpox And Diphtheria 

Chickenpox ( Varicella )

Chickenpox ( varicella )

Agent: Varicella Zoster.

Source: secretion of the respiratory tract, to a lesser degree skin lesion.

Most common age: 2-8 years.

Transmission: direct contact, droplet spread and contaminated objects.

Incubation period: 2-3 weeks.

Period of communicability: 1 day prior to the first lesion to the last vesicle is dried.

Clinical manifestations :

- Slight fever, malaise, anorexia.

- Rash highly pruritic begins as macule rapidly progress to papule and then vesicles surrounded by the erythematous base breaks easily and form crusts in the face and proximal extremities.

- Irritability.

Treatment :

- Anti-viral ( acyclovir ).

- Varicella zoster immunoglobulin.

- Antihistamine.

- Skin care.

Complication :

- Secondary bacterial infections . ( abscess , cellulites ).

- Encephalitis , due to viremia.



Agent: corynabacterium diphtheria.

Source: discharge from the mucous membrane of nose, nasopharynx, skin and other lesions of infected person and carriers.

Transmission: direct contact, droplet spread by sneezing or coughing and contaminated object.

Incubation period: 2-5 days.

Period of communicability: 2-4 weeks.

Incidence: increase in winter and autumn.

Diagnostic test: culture from nose and throat.

Clinical manifestations :

 vary according to the anatomic location of pseudo-membrane.

1. Nasal: common cold and discharge, low-grade fever whitish-grey membrane on nasal septum, epistaxis.

2. Tonsillar/pharyngeal: white or grey membrane on tonsils, uvula and soft palate, low-grade fever, anorexia, general malaise.

3. laryngeal: potential airway obstruction, fever, cough and respiratory difficulty.

4. Non-respiratory: eye ear and rarely skin.

Treatment :

Anti-toxin for diphtheria.


Pleurisy and Peural Effusion

Laryngitis And Laryngeal Cancer

Polyhydramnios And Oligohydramnios

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